Effect of High Performance Work Practices on Job Embeddedness and Employee Innovative Behavior
Purpose – This study ascertained the high performance work practices effects on employee innovative behavior through key mediating role of the job embeddedness of front line service employees in Pakistan hospitality sector.
Method – Data gathered from four and five-star hotel FLSEs in two waves with a time lag of two weeks, the relationships in the conceptual model were gauged through Partial Least Squares (PLS).
Findings – The results suggest that job embeddedness mediate the relationship between high performance work practices and employee innovative behavior. In particular, front line service employees in presence of high performance work practices have high job embeddedness, and are more likely to exhibit innovative behaviors at work.Research implications – This study will send a strong message to service firms that provision of performance enhancing human resource practices is of prime importance to enhance. With this in mind management needs to take benefit of the strength of high performance work practices to enhance frontline employees attachment with organization to produce innovation related behaviors at work
Ahmad, M., & Allen, M. (2015). High performance HRM and establishment performance in Pakistan: an empirical analysis. Employee Relations, 37(5), 506-524.
Alasttal, M. N. M., & Burdey, M. B. (2017). An Exploratory Analysis Of Pakistan Tourism Market: Its Present Scenario, Issues, Challenges And Future Prospects. Grassroots, 50(3).Amo & kolvereid, 2005).
Appelbaum, E., Bailey, T., Berg, P. B., Kalleberg, A. L., & Bailey, T. A. (2000). Manufacturing advantage: Why high-performance work systems pay off. Cornell University Press.Avey et al., 2015;
Babakus, E., Yavas, U., Karatepe, O. M., & Avci, T. (2003). The effect of management commitment to service quality on employees' affective and performance outcomes. Journal of the Academy of marketing Science, 31(3), 272-286.
Bambacas, M., & Kulik, T. C. (2013). Job embeddedness in China: How HR practices impact turnover intentions. The International Journal of Human Resource Management, 24(10), 1933-1952.
Bergiel, E. B., Nguyen, V. Q., Clenney, B. F., & Stephen Taylor, G. (2009). Human resource practices, job embeddedness and intention to quit. Management Research News, 32(3), 205-219.
Blau, P. (1964). Power and exchange in social life. New York: J Wiley & Sons, 352.
Bonesso, S., & Tintorri, S. (2014). Bridging the Fields of Innovative Behavior and Human Resource Management: A Systematic Review and Future Research Directions (working paper). In IX International Workshop on Human Resource Management.
Boshoff, C., & Allen, J. (2000). The influence of selected antecedents on frontline staff’s perceptions of service recovery performance. International Journal of Service Industry Management, 11(1), 63-90.
Bos-Nehles, A., Renkema, M., & Janssen, M. (2017). HRM and innovative work behaviour: a systematic literature review. Personnel review, 46(7), 1228-1253.
Černe, M., Hernaus, T., Dysvik, A., & Škerlavaj, M. (2017). The role of multilevel synergistic interplay among team mastery climate, knowledge hiding, and job characteristics in stimulating innovative work behavior. Human Resource Management Journal, 27(2), 281-299.
Chang, S., Gong, Y., & Shum, C. (2011). Promoting innovation in hospitality companies through human resource management practices. International Journal of Hospitality Management, 30(4), 812-818.
Cheng, J. H., Chen, F. Y., & Chang, Y. H. (2008). Airline relationship quality: An examination of Taiwanese passengers. Tourism management, 29(3), 487-499.
Chi, C. G., & Gursoy, D. (2009). Employee satisfaction, customer satisfaction, and financial performance: An empirical examination. International Journal of Hospitality Management, 28(2), 245-253.
Chiang, F. F., & Birtch, T. A. (2008). Achieving task and extra-task-related behaviors: A case of gender and position differences in the perceived role of rewards in the hotel industry. International Journal of Hospitality Management, 27(4), 491-503.
Cho, S., Woods, R. H., Jang, S. S., & Erdem, M. (2006). Measuring the impact of human resource management practices on hospitality firms’ performances. International Journal of Hospitality Management, 25(2), 262-277.
Chuang, C. H., & Liao, H. U. I. (2010). Strategic human resource management in service context: Taking care of business by taking care of employees and customers. Personnel psychology, 63(1), 153-196.
Coetzer, A., Inma, C., Poisat, P., Redmond, J., & Standing, C. (2018). Job embeddedness and employee enactment of innovation-related work behaviours. International Journal of Manpower, 39(2), 222-239.
Collins, B. J., Burrus, C. J., & Meyer, R. D. (2014). Gender differences in the impact of leadership styles on subordinate embeddedness and job satisfaction. The leadership quarterly, 25(4), 660-671.
Collins, C. J., & Smith, K. G. (2006). Knowledge exchange and combination: The role of human resource practices in the performance of high-technology firms. Academy of management journal, 49(3), 544-560.
Combs, J., Liu, Y., Hall, A., & Ketchen, D. (2006). How much do high‐performance work practices matter? A meta‐analysis of their effects on organizational performance. Personnel psychology, 59(3), 501-528.
Cooke, F. L., & Saini, D. S. (2010). (How) Does the HR strategy support an innovation oriented business strategy? An investigation of institutional context and organizational practices in Indian firms. Human Resource Management: Published in Cooperation with the School of Business Administration, The University of Michigan and in alliance with the Society of Human Resources Management, 49(3), 377-400.
Cropanzano, R., Rupp, D. E., & Byrne, Z. S. (2003). The relationship of emotional exhaustion to work attitudes, job performance, and organizational citizenship behaviors. Journal of Applied psychology, 88(1), 160.
Crossley, C. D., Bennett, R. J., Jex, S. M., & Burnfield, J. L. (2007). Development of a global measure of job embeddedness and integration into a traditional model of voluntary turnover. Journal of Applied Psychology, 92(4), 1031.
Daskin, M., Arasli, H., & Kasim, A. (2015). The impact of management commitment to service quality, intrinsic motivation and nepotism on front-line employees' affective work outcomes. International Journal of Management Practice, 8(4), 269-295.
De Jong, J., & Den Hartog, D. (2010). Measuring innovative work behaviour. Creativity and innovation management, 19(1), 23-36.
De Saa-Perez, P., & Díaz-Díaz, N. L. (2010). Human resource management and innovation in the Canary Islands: an ultra-peripheral region of the European Union. The International Journal of Human Resource Management, 21(10), 1649-1666.
Dotzel, T., Shankar, V., & Berry, L. L. (2013). Service innovativeness and firm value. Journal of Marketing Research, 50(2), 259-276.
Engel, R. J., & Schutt, R. K. (2012). The practice of research in social work. Sage.
Enz, C. A., & Siguaw, J. A. (2003). Revisiting the best of the best: Innovations in hotel practice. Cornell Hotel and Restaurant Administration Quarterly, 44(5-6), 115-123.
Farrukh, M., Chong, W. Y., Mansori, S., & Ravan Ramzani, S. (2017). Intrapreneurial behaviour: the role of organizational commitment. World Journal of Entrepreneurship, Management and Sustainable Development,
(3), 243–256. https://doi.org/10.1108/WJEMSD-03-2017-0016
Farrukh, M., Khan, A. A., Khan, A. A., Shahid Khan, M., Shahid Khan, M., Ravan Ramzani, S., … Soladoye, B. S. A. (2017). Entrepreneurial intentions: the role of family factors, personality traits and self-efficacy. World Journal of Entrepreneurship, Management and Sustainable Development, 13(4), 303–317.
Farrukh, M., Wei Ying, C., & Abdallah Ahmed, N. O. (2016). Organizational commitment: Does religiosity matter? Cogent Business & Management, 3(1), 1–10. https://doi.org/10.1080/23311975.2016.1239300
Farrukh, M., Ying, C., & Mansori, S. (2016). Intrapreneurial behavior : an empirical investigation of personality traits Research issue. Management & Marketing. Challenges for the Knowledge Society, 11(4), 597–609. https://doi.org/10.1515/mmcks-2016-0018.Introduction
Farrukh, M., Ying, C. W., & Mansori, S. (2017). Organizational commitment: an empirical analysis of personality traits. Journal of Work-Applied Management, 9(1), 18–34.
Riaz, Q., Farrukh, M., Rehman, S. U., & Ishaque, A. (2016). Religion and entrepreneurial intentions : an empirical investigation. International Journal of Advanced and Applied Sciences, 3(9), 31–36.
Shahzad, I. A., Farrukh, M., Kanwal, N., & Sakib, A. (2018). Decision-making participation eulogizes probability of behavioral output; job satisfaction, and employee performance (evidence from professionals having low and high levels of perceived organizational support). World Journal of Entrepreneurship, Management and Sustainable Development.
Feldman, D. C., & Ng, T. W. (2007). Careers: Mobility, embeddedness, and success. Journal of management, 33(3), 350-377.
Felps, W., Mitchell, T. R., Hekman, D. R., Lee, T. W., Holtom, B. C., & Harman, W. S. (2009). Turnover contagion: How coworkers' job embeddedness and job search behaviors influence quitting. Academy of Management Journal, 52(3), 545-561.
Godard, J. (2001). High performance and the transformation of work? The implications of alternative work practices for the experience and outcomes of work. ILR Review, 54(4), 776-805.
Gong, Y., Huang, J. C., & Farh, J. L. (2009). Employee learning orientation, transformational leadership, and employee creativity: The mediating role of employee creative self-efficacy. Academy of management Journal, 52(4), 765-778.
Granovetter, M. (1985). Economic action and social structure: The problem of embeddedness. American journal of sociology, 91(3), 481-510.
Guchait, P., Kim, M. G., & Namasivayam, K. (2012). Error management at different organizational levels–frontline, manager, and company. International Journal of Hospitality Management, 31(1), 12-22.
Guthrie, J. P. (2001). High-involvement work practices, turnover, and productivity: Evidence from New Zealand. Academy of management Journal, 44(1), 180-190.
Hayes, B. E. (1994). How to measure empowerment. Quality Progress, 27, 41-41.
Heskett, J. L., Jones, T. O., Loveman, G. W., Sasser, W. E., & Schlesinger, L. A. (1994). Putting the service-profit chain to work. Harvard business review, 72(2), 164-174.
Holtom, B. C., Burton, J. P., & Crossley, C. D. (2012). How negative affectivity moderates the relationship between shocks, embeddedness and worker behaviors. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 80(2), 434-443.
Holtom, B. C., Mitchell, T. R., Lee, T. W., & Eberly, M. B. (2008). 5 turnover and retention research: a glance at the past, a closer review of the present, and a venture into the future. The Academy of Management Annals, 2(1), 231-274.
Hur, W. M., Won Moon, T., & Jun, J. K. (2013). The role of perceived organizational support on emotional labor in the airline industry. International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, 25(1), 105-123.
Huselid, M. A. (1995). The impact of human resource management practices on turnover, productivity, and corporate financial performance. Academy of management journal, 38(3), 635-672.
Jansen-Verbeke, M. (1996). Cross-cultural differences in the practices of hotel managers: a study of Dutch and Belgian hotel managers. Tourism Management, 17(7), 544-548.
Janssen, O. (2000). Job demands, perceptions of effort‐reward fairness and innovative work behaviour. Journal of Occupational and organizational psychology, 73(3), 287-302.
Janssen, O. (2001). Fairness perceptions as a moderator in the curvilinear relationships between job demands, and job performance and job satisfaction. Academy of management journal, 44(5), 1039-1050.
Janssen, O., Van de Vliert, E., & West, M. (2004). The bright and dark sides of individual and group innovation: A special issue introduction. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 25(2), 129-145.
Jiang, K., Liu, D., McKay, P. F., Lee, T. W., & Mitchell, T. R. (2012). When and how is job embeddedness predictive of turnover? A meta-analytic investigation. Journal of Applied Psychology, 97(5), 1077.
Johnston, R. E., & Bate, J. D. (2013). The power of strategy innovation: a new way of linking creativity and strategic planning to discover great business opportunities. AMACOM Div American Mgmt Assn.
Kanter, R.M. (1988). When a thousand flowers bloom: Structural, collective, and social conditions for innovation in organizations. In B.M.
Staw, & L.L. Cummings (Eds.), Research in organizational behavior (vol. 10, pp. 169–211). Greenwich, CT: JAI Press.
Karatepe, O. M. (2011). Do job resources moderate the effect of emotional dissonance on burnout? A study in the city of Ankara, Turkey. International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, 23(1), 44-65.
Karatepe, O. M. (2013). High-performance work practices, work social support and their effects on job embeddedness and turnover intentions. International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, 25(6), 903-921.
Karatepe, O. M. (2016). Does job embeddedness mediate the effects of coworker and family support on creative performance? An empirical study in the hotel industry. Journal of Human Resources in Hospitality & Tourism, 15(2), 119-132.
Karatepe, O. M., & Agbaim, I. M. (2012). Perceived ethical climate and hotel employee outcomes: an empirical investigation in Nigeria. Journal of Quality Assurance in Hospitality & Tourism, 13(4), 286-315.
Karatepe, O. M., & Vatankhah, S. (2014). The effects of high-performance work practices and job embeddedness on flight attendants' performance outcomes. Journal of Air Transport Management, 37, 27-35.
Karatepe, O. M., & Vatankhah, S. (2015). High-performance work practices, career satisfaction, and service recovery performance: a study of flight attendants. Tourism Review, 70(1), 56-71.
Khan, N. A. (2008). Tourism and Development in India: Myths and Realities. Johar, 3(2), 101.
Kindström, D., Kowalkowski, C., & Sandberg, E. (2013). Enabling service innovation: A dynamic capabilities approach. Journal of business research, 66(8), 1063-1073.
Konovsky, M. A., & Pugh, S. D. (1994). Citizenship behavior and social exchange. Academy of management journal, 37(3), 656-669.
Kotler, P., Bowen, J. T., Makens, J. C., Xie, Y. & Liang, C. (2006). Marketing for hospitality and tourism, Prentice hall New Jersey.
Kotler, P., Bowen, J.T. and Makens, J.C. (2010), Marketing for Hospitality
and Tourism, 5th ed., Pearson Education, Upper Saddle River, NJ.
Kwantes, C. T., Arbour, S., & Boglarsky, C. A. (2007). Organizational culture fit and outcomes in six national contexts: An organizational level analysis. Journal of Organizational Culture, Communications and Conflict, 11(2), 95.
Lashley, C. (1995). Towards an understanding of employee empowerment in hospitality services. International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, 7(1), 27-32.
Lee, T. W., Mitchell, T. R., Sablynski, C. J., Burton, J. P., & Holtom, B. C. (2004). The effects of job embeddedness on organizational citizenship, job performance, volitional absences, and voluntary turnover. Academy of Management Journal, 47(5), 711-722.
Milliman, J., Ferguson, J., Trickett, D., & Condemi, B. (1999). Spirit and community at Southwest Airlines: An investigation of a spiritual values-based model. Journal of organizational change management, 12(3), 221-233.
Mitchell, T. R., Holtom, B. C., Lee, T. W., Sablynski, C. J., & Erez, M. (2001). Why people stay: Using job embeddedness to predict voluntary turnover. Academy of management journal, 44(6), 1102-1121.
Nameghi, E. N., & Ariffin, A. A. M. (2013). The measurement scale for airline hospitality: Cabin crew's performance perspective. Journal of Air Transport Management, 30, 1-9.
Ng, T. W., & Feldman, D. C. (2009). Occupational embeddedness and job performance. Journal of Organizational Behavior: The International Journal of Industrial, Occupational and Organizational Psychology and Behavior, 30(7), 863-891.
Ng, T. W., & Feldman, D. C. (2010). The impact of job embeddedness on innovation‐related behaviors. Human Resource Management, 49(6), 1067-1087.
Ng, T. W., & Feldman, D. C. (2011). Affective organizational commitment and citizenship behavior: Linear and non-linear moderating effects of organizational tenure. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 79(2), 528-537.
Ng, T. W., & Feldman, D. C. (2013). Changes in perceived supervisor embeddedness: Effects on employees’ embeddedness, organizational trust, and voice behavior. Personnel Psychology, 66(3), 645-685.
Ng, T.W.H. and Feldman, D.C. (2011), “Locus of control and organizational embeddedness”, Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology, 84 (1), 173-190.
Noefer, K., Stegmaier, R., Molter, B., & Sonntag, K. (2009). A great many things to do and not a minute to spare: Can feedback from supervisors moderate the relationship between skill variety, time pressure, and employees' innovative behavior?. Creativity Research Journal, 21(4), 384-393.
Orfila-Sintes, F., & Mattsson, J. (2009). Innovation behavior in the hotel industry. Omega, 37(2), 380-394.
Ostrom, A. L., Bitner, M. J., Brown, S. W., Burkhard, K. A., Goul, M., Smith-Daniels, V., ... & Rabinovich, E. (2010). Moving forward and making a difference: research priorities for the science of service. Journal of service research, 13(1), 4-36.
Park, H. Y., Ofori-Dankwa, J., & Bishop, D. R. (1994). Organizational and environmental determinants of functional and dysfunctional turnover: Practical and research implications. Human Relations, 47(3), 353-366.
Park, Y. K., Song, J. H., Yoon, S. W., & Kim, J. (2014). Learning organization and innovative behavior: The mediating effect of work engagement. European Journal of Training and Development, 38(1/2), 75-94.
Poulston, J. (2008). Hospitality workplace problems and poor training: a close relationship. International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, 20(4), 412-427.
Ramamoorthy, N., Flood, P. C., Slattery, T., & Sardessai, R. (2005). Determinants of innovative work behaviour: Development and test of an integrated model. Creativity and innovation management, 14(2), 142-150.
Rank, J., Pace, V. L., & Frese, M. (2004). Three avenues for future research on creativity, innovation, and initiative. Applied psychology, 53(4), 518-528.
Robinson, R. N., Kralj, A., Solnet, D. J., Goh, E., & Callan, V. (2014). Thinking job embeddedness not turnover: Towards a better understanding of frontline hotel worker retention. International Journal of Hospitality Management, 36, 101-109.
Scheidegger, E. (2006). Can the state promote innovation in tourism? Should it?. Innovation and growth in tourism, 11-16.
Schneider, S. K., & George, W. M. (2011). Servant leadership versus transformational leadership in voluntary service organizations. Leadership & Organization Development Journal, 32(1), 60-77.
Schuhmacher, M. C., & Kuester, S. (2012). Identification of lead user characteristics driving the quality of service innovation ideas. Creativity and Innovation Management, 21(4), 427-442.
Scott, S. G., & Bruce, R. A. (1994). Determinants of innovative behavior: A path model of individual innovation in the workplace. Academy of management journal, 37(3), 580-607.
Shaw, J. D., Delery, J. E., Jenkins Jr, G. D., & Gupta, N. (1998). An organization-level analysis of voluntary and involuntary turnover. Academy of management journal, 41(5), 511-525.
Slater, S. F., Mohr, J. J., & Sengupta, S. (2014). Radical product innovation capability: Literature review, synthesis, and illustrative research propositions. Journal of Product Innovation Management, 31(3), 552-566.
Solnet, D., Kandampully, J., & Kralj, A. (2010). Legends of service excellence: The habits of seven highly effective hospitality companies. Journal of Hospitality Marketing & Management, 19(8), 889-908.
Son, J. M. (2012). Job embeddedness and turnover intentions: an empirical investigation of construction IT industries.
Sun, L. Y., Aryee, S., & Law, K. S. (2007). High-performance human resource practices, citizenship behavior, and organizational performance: A relational perspective. Academy of management Journal, 50(3), 558-577.
Tajeddini, K. (2010). Effect of customer orientation and entrepreneurial orientation on innovativeness: Evidence from the hotel industry in Switzerland. Tourism management, 31(2), 221-231.
Tang, T. W., & Tang, Y. Y. (2012). Promoting service-oriented organizational citizenship behaviors in hotels: The role of high-performance human resource practices and organizational social climates. International Journal of Hospitality Management, 31(3), 885-895.
Thakur, R., & Hale, D. (2013). Service innovation: A comparative study of US and Indian service firms. Journal of Business Research, 66(8), 1108-1123.
Tongco, M. D. C. (2007). Purposive sampling as a tool for informant selection. Ethnobotany Research and applications, 5, 147-158.
Veenendaal, A., & Bondarouk, T. (2015). Perceptions of HRM and their effect on dimensions of innovative work behaviour: Evidence from a manufacturing firm. Management revue, 138-160.
Walumbwa, F. O., Peterson, S. J., Avolio, B. J., & Hartnell, C. A. (2010). An investigation of the relationships among leader and follower psychological capital, service climate, and job performance. Personnel Psychology, 63(4), 937-963.
Wang, Y. F. (2013). Constructing career competency model of hospitality industry employees for career success. International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, 25(7), 994-1016.
Welbourne, T. M., Johnson, D. E., & Erez, A. (1998). The role-based performance scale: Validity analysis of a theory-based measure. Academy of management journal, 41(5), 540-555.
Wheeler, A. R., Harris, K. J., & Harvey, P. (2010). Moderating and mediating the HRM effectiveness—intent to turnover relationship: The roles of supervisors and job embeddedness. Journal of Managerial Issues, 182-196.
Wheeler, A. R., Harris, K. J., & Sablynski, C. J. (2012). How do employees invest abundant resources? The mediating role of work effort in the job‐embeddedness/job‐performance relationship. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 42, E244-E266.
Wilson, J. D. (2010). Examining job embeddedness survey items for an adventure education population.
Woodman, R. W., Sawyer, J. E., & Griffin, R. W. (1993). Toward a theory of organizational creativity. Academy of management review, 18(2), 293-321.
Yuan, F., & Woodman, R. W. (2010). Innovative behavior in the workplace: The role of performance and image outcome expectations. Academy of Management Journal, 53(2), 323-342.
Zhang, Y. C., & Li, S. L. (2009). High performance work practices and firm performance: evidence from the pharmaceutical industry in China. The International Journal of Human Resource Management, 20(11), 2331-2348.
Copyright (c) 2018 International Journal of Contemporary Economics and Administrative Sciences
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
The Author(s) must make formal transfer of copyright for each article prior to publication in the International Journal of Contemporary Economics and Administrative Sciences. Such transfer enables the Journal to defend itself against plagiarism and other forms of copyright infringement. Your cooperation is appreciated. You agree that copyright of your article to be published in the International Journal of Contemporary Economics and Administrative Sciences is hereby transferred, throughout the World and for the full term and all extensions and renewals thereof, to International Journal of Contemporary Economics and Administrative Sciences.
The Author(s) reserve(s): (a) the trademark rights and patent rights, if any, and (b) the right to use all or part of the information contained in this article in future, non-commercial works of the Author's own, or, if the article is a "work-for-hire" and made within the scope of the Author's employment, the employer may use all or part of the information contained in this article for intra-company use, provided the usual acknowledgements are given regarding copyright notice and reference to the original publication.
The Author(s) warrant(s) that the article is Author's original work, and has not been published before. If excerpts from copyrighted works are included, the Author will obtain written permission from the copyright owners and shall credit the sources in the article. The author also warrants that the article contains no libelous or unlawful statements, and does not infringe on the rights of others. If the article was prepared jointly with other Author(s), the Author agrees to inform the co-Author(s) of the terms of the copyright transfer and to sign on their behalf; or in the case of a "work-for-hire" the employer or an authorized representative of the employer.
The journal is registered with the ISSN : 1925-4423.
IJCEAS is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
This license lets others distribute, remix, tweak, and build upon your work, even commercially, as long as they credit you for the original creation. This is the most accommodating of licenses offered. Recommended for maximum dissemination and use of licensed materials.