Touristic Destinations’ Perceived Risk And Perceived Value As Indicators Of E-Wom And Revisit Intentions
AbstractIn the process of destination selection, it is known that tourists perceive many different risks and use eWOM behavior as a risk reduction tool. Also the risks that consumers perceive are influential on the values they perceive. For this reason, spreading positive eWOM messages and encouraging revisit intentions are seen as significant competitive advantages in terms of destination management. In this context, to measure the effects of tourists’ perceived risk on their perceived value and the effects of their perceived value on their eWOM dissemination and revisit intentions, have been identified as the main objectives of this study. The sample of the study consists 228 tourists who visited the Fethiye (TR) destination in 2017. As a result of analysis of the data with Structural Equation Modeling, it is found that perceived risk variable has an impact on perceived value, perceived value variable has impacts on eWOM dissemination intention and revisit intention and eWOM dissemination intention has an impact on revisit intention.
Abubakar, A.M. (2016) “Does eWOM influence destination trust and travel intention: a medical tourism perspective,” Economic Research-Ekonomska Istraživanja, 29, 1, 598-611.
Akyüz, A. (2013), “Determinant factors influencing e-WOM,” Mediterranean Journal of Social Sciences, 4, 159-166.
Allameh, S. M., Khazaei Pool, J., Jaberi, A., Salehzadeh, R., & Asadi, H. (2015). Factors influencing sport tourists’ revisit intentions: The role and effect of destination image, perceived quality, perceived value and satisfaction. Asia Pacific Journal of Marketing and Logistics, 27(2), 191-207.
Arndt, J. (1967), “Role of product-related conversa¬tions in the diffusion of a new product,” Journal of Marketing Research, 4, 291-295.
Aven, T., Renn. O. (2009) On risk defined as an event where the outcome is uncertain, Journal of Risk Research, 12:1, 1-11.
Aydın, B.O. (2014) Electronic Word-Of-Mouth: An Analysis Of Consumer Motivations, Journal of Institute of Social Sciences, 32, 13-25.
Başanbaş, Ş. (2012), A Research On Perceived Quality, Satisfaction and Loyalty Relatıonshıp In Automotive Supplier Industry, Journal of Marketing and Marketing Research, 10, 15-39.
Bauer, R.A. (1960), “Consumer behavior as risk taking,” in Dynamic marketing for a changing world, R.S. Hancock, ed. Chicago: American Marketing Association, 389-398.
Bauer, R.A. (1967), Risk Taking and Information Handling in Consumer Behavior, Graduate School of Business Administration, Harvard University, Boston, MA, pp. 23-33.
Bulut, Z. A., & Karabulut, A. N. (2018) Examining the role of two aspects of eWOM in online repurchase intention: An integrated trust–loyalty perspective. Journal of Consumer Behaviour.
Chen, C-H., Nguyen, B., Klaus, P. & Wu, M-S. (2014) Exploring Electronic Word-of-Mouth (eWOM) in The Consumer Purchase Decision-Making Process: The Case of Online Holidays – Evidence from United Kingdom (UK) Consumers, Journal of Travel & Tourism Marketing, 32:8, 953-970.
Chen, Z., & Dubinsky, A. J. (2003). A Conceptual Model Of Perceived Customer Value in E‐Commerce: A Preliminary Investigation. Psychology & Marketing, 20(4), 323-347.
Chew, E.Y.T. & Jahari, S.A. (2014), Destination Image As A Mediator Between Perceived Risks And Revisit Intention: A Case Of Post-Disaster Japan, Tourism Management, 40, 382-393.
Chiu, C. M., Wang, E. T., Fang, Y. H., & Huang, H. Y. (2014). Understanding customers' repeat purchase intentions in B2C e‐commerce: the roles of utilitarian value, hedonic value and perceived risk. Information Systems Journal, 24(1), 85-114.
Choi, H.S. ve Sırakaya, E. (2005). Measuring Residents’ Attitude toward Sustainable Tourism: Development of Sustainable Tourism Attitude Scale. Journal of Tourism Research, 43, 380-394.
Clemes, M. D., Wu, J. H. C., Hu, B. D., and Gan, C. (2009). “An Empirical Study of Behavioral Intentions in the Taiwan Hotel Industry”. Innovative Marketing, 5(3): 30-50.
Clow, K. E. & Baack, D. (2016) Integrated Advertising, Promotion and Marketing Communications (7th Edition), Pearson Education, London.
Cronbach, L.J. (1951). Coefficient alpha and the internal structure of tests. Psychometrika 16 (3), 297–334
Cox, D.F., Rich, S.U., (1964) Perceived Risk and Consumer Decision-Making: The Case of Telephone Shopping, Journal of Marketing Research: 1 (4), ss. 32 – 39.
Çetinsöz, B. C., Ege, Z. (2012) Risk Reduction Strategies According to Demographic Features of Tourists: The Case of Alanya, Anatolia Turizm Araştırmaları Dergisi, 23 (2), 159 - 172.
Di Pietro, L., Di Virgilio, F., Pantano, E. (2012), Social network for the choice of tourist destination: attitude and behavioural intention, Journal of Hospitality and Tourism Technology, 3 (1), 60-76.
Eggert, A., & Ulaga, W. (2002). Customer perceived value: a substitute for satisfaction in business markets?. Journal of Business & industrial marketing, 17(2/3), 107-118.
Erdoğan, E., Aksoy, R. (2013) The Impact Of Consumers' Perceived Risk On The Perceived Service Quality In Services, International Journal Of Economic And Social Research, 9, 2, 9, 121-150.
Fornell, C. and Larcker, D. F. (1981). “Evaluating Structural Equation Models with Unobservable Variables and Measurement Error”. Journal of Marketing Research, 18(1): 39-50.
Fotis, J., Buhalis, D. & Rossides, N. (2012) Social media use amd impact during the holiday travel planning process, In: Fuchs, M., Ricci, F. and
Cantoni, L., eds. Information and Communication Technologies in Tourism, Springer-Verlag, Vienna, pp. 13-24.
Fuchs, G. & Reichel, A. (2011), An exploratory inquiry into destination risk perceptions and risk reduction strategies of first time vs. repeat visitors to a highly volatile destination, Tourism Management, 32, 2, 266-276.
Fyall, A., Garrod, B. & Wang, Y. (2012), Destination collaboration: A critical review of theoretical approaches to a multi-dimensional phenomenon, Journal of Destination Marketing & Management, 1, 1-2, 10-26.
Gaskin, J. and Lim, J. (2016), "Master Validity Tool", AMOS Plugin. Gaskination's StatWiki.
Gomezelj, D.O. & Mihalic, T. (2008), Destination Competitiveness, Tourism Management, 29, 2, 294-307.
Hair, J., Black, W., Babin, B., and Anderson, R. (2010). Multivariate data analysis (7th ed.): Prentice-Hall, Inc. Upper Saddle River, NJ, USA.
Hsu, C-L., Lin & J. C-C. (2015) What drives purchase intention for paid mobile apps? – An expectation confirmation model with perceived value, Electronic Commerce Research and Applications, 14, 46–57.
Hu, L. ve Bentler P. M. (1999). “Cut Off Criteria For Fit Indexes In Covariance Structure Analysis: Conventional Criteria Versus New Alternatives”. Structural Equation Modeling: A Multidisciplinary Journal, 6(1): 1-55.
Jakobsen, J.K.S. & Munar, A.M. (2012) Tourist information search and destination choice in a digital age, Tourism Management Perspectives, 1, 39-47.
Jalilvand, M. R., Samiei, N., Dini, B. & Manzari, P.R. (2012) Examining the structural relationships of electronic word of mouth, destination image, tourist attitude toward destination and travel intention: An integrated approach, Journal of Destination Marketing & Management, 1, 134–143.
Karabulut, A. N. (2013), Measurement of Tendency of Consumers to Make Shopping via Internet Against Perceived Variable of Risk: Prospect Theory Against Expected Utility Theory, Journal Of Yasar University, 8 (32), 5515-5536.
Karamustafa, K., Erbaş, E. (2011), Perceived Risk in Buying Decision Process: A Research on Package Tours, Journal of Consumer and Consumption Research, 3(1), 103-144.
Karatepe, O. M. and Ekiz, H. E. (2004), “The effects of organizational responses to complaint on satisfaction and loyalty: a study of hotel guests in Northern Cyprus”, Managing Service Quality, 14(6): 476-486.
Karl, M. & Schmude, J. (2017), Understanding the role of risk (perception) indestination choice: A literature review and synthesis, Turizam: međunarodni znanstveno-stručni časopis, 65 (2), 138-155.
Kahneman, D. & Tversky, A. (1979) Prospect Theory: An Analysis of Decision under Risk, Econometrica: 47 (2), ss. 263 – 292.
Kline, R. B. (2011). Principles And Practice Of Structual Equation Modeling, Third Edition, The Guil XYZ Press, New York, USA.
Koç, E. (2016) Tüketici Davranışı ve Pazarlama Stratejileri: Global ve Yerel Yaklaşım, Seçkin Publication, Ankara.
Lee, Y-C. (2014), Impacts of decision-making biases on eWOM retrust and risk-reducing strategies, Computers in Human Behavior, 40, 101–110.
Lepp, A., Gibson, H. & Lane, C. (2011), Image and perceived risk: A study of Uganda and its official tourism website, Tourism Management, 32, 3, 675-684.
Lim, N. (2003), Consumers’ perceived risk: sources versus consequences, Electronic Commerce Research and Applications, 2, 216–228.
Mitchell, A. C. (2016) Changes in Perceptions of Service Quality Corresponding to Population Growth, International Journal Advances in Social Science and Humanities, 4 (1), 62 – 69.
Mitchell, V-W. (1999) Consumer Perceived Risk: Conceptualisations and Models, European Journal of Marketing: 33 (1/2), 163 – 195.
Nadiri, H., Hussain, K., Ekiz, E. H. ve Erdoğan, Ş.(2008). "An investigation on the factors influencing passengers' loyalty in the North Cyprus national airline", The TQM Journal, 20(3): 265-280.
Nunnally, J.C., 2010. Psychometric Theory 3E: Tata McGraw-Hill Education
Oh, H. (1999). Service quality, customer satisfaction, and customer value: A holistic perspective. International Journal of Hospitality Management, 18(1), 67-82.
Oliver, R. L. (1980). A cognitive model of the antecedents and consequences of satisfaction decisions, Journal of marketing research, 17(4), 460-469.
Onaran, B., Bulut, Z.A. & Özmen, A. (2013), A Study to Investigate the Effect of Customer Value on Customer Satisfaction, Brand Loyalty and Customer Relationship Management Performance, Business and Economics Research Journal, 4 (2), 37-53.
Raykov, T. ve Marcoulides, A. G. (2006). A First Course in Structural Equation Modeling. 2th Ed, Lawrence Erlbaum Inc., New Jersey, USA.
Raza, M. A., Siddiquei, A. N., Awan, H. M., & Bukhari, K. (2012). Relationship between service quality, perceived value, satisfaction and revisit intention in hotel industry. Interdisciplinary journal of contemporary research in business, 4(8), 788-805.
Ryu, K., Han, H., and Kim, T. H. (2008). “The Relationships among Overall Quick-Casual Restaurant Image, Perceived Value, Customer Satisfaction and Behavioral Intentions”. International Journal of Hospitality Management, 27, 459-469.
Schumacker, R. E. & Lomax, R.G. (2004). Beginner’s guide to structural equaiton modeling, Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, New Jersey, USA.
Sharifpour, M., Walters, G., Ritchie, B.W. & Winter C. (2014), Investigating the Role of Prior Knowledge in Tourist Decision Making: A Structural Equation Model of Risk Perceptions and Information Search, Journal of Travel Research, 53, 3, 307-322.
Şimşek, Ö. F. (2007). Yapısal Eşitlik Modellemesine Giriş (Temel İlkeler ve LISREL Uygulamaları). Ekinoks Publishing, Ankara.
Sweeney J.C., Soutar, G.N., Johnson, L.W. (1999) The Role of Perceived Risk in the Quality – Value Relationship: A Study in a Retail Environment, Journal of Retailing: 75(1), 77–105.
Tavitiyaman, P. & Qu, H. (2013) Destination Image and Behavior Intention of Travelers to Thailand: the Moderating Effect of Perceived Risk, Journal of Travel & Tourism Management, 30, 3, 169-185.
Taylor, J.W. (1974) The Role of Risk in Consumer Behavior, Journal of Marketing, 38 (2), ss. 54 – 60.
Tham A., Croy, G. & Mair, J. (2013), Social Media in Destination Choice: Distinctive Electronic Word-of-Mouth Dimensions, Journal of Travel & Tourism Marketing, 30:1-2, 144-155.
Tsanakas, A., and E. Desli (2003), “Risk measures and theories of choice,” British Actuarial Journal, 9, 959-991.
Tsiros, M., Heilman, C.M. (2005) The Effect of Expiration Dates and Perceived Risk on Purchasing Behavior in Grocery Store Perishable Categories, Journal of Marketing: 69 (2), 114 – 129.
Um, S., Chon, K., & Ro, Y. (2006). Antecedents of revisit intention. Annals of tourism research, 33(4), 1141-1158.
Wu, L. Y., Chen, K. Y., Chen, P. Y., & Cheng, S. L. (2014). Perceived value, transaction cost, and repurchase-intention in online shopping: A relational exchange perspective. Journal of Business Research, 67(1), 2768-2776.
Yeniçeri, T., Yaraş E., Akın, E. (2012) Tüketicilerin Riskten Kaçınma Düzeylerine Göre Sanal Alışveriş Risk Algısı Ve Sanal Plansız Tüketim Eğilimlerinin Belirlenmesi, International Journal of Economic and Administrative Studies: 9, ss. 145 – 164.
Yuksel. A. and Yuksel, F. (2008), “Consumer satisfaction theories: a critical review”, in Yuksel, A. (Ed.), Tourist Satisfaction and Complaining Behavior: Measurement and Management Issues, Nova Science Publications Inc, New York, NY, 65-88.
Zhu, M., Lai, S. (2009) A Study About The EWOM Influence on Tourism Destination Choice, International Conference on Electronic Commerce and Business Intelligence (ECBI), Bejing June 6-7.
The Author(s) must make formal transfer of copyright for each article prior to publication in the International Journal of Contemporary Economics and Administrative Sciences. Such transfer enables the Journal to defend itself against plagiarism and other forms of copyright infringement. Your cooperation is appreciated. You agree that copyright of your article to be published in the International Journal of Contemporary Economics and Administrative Sciences is hereby transferred, throughout the World and for the full term and all extensions and renewals thereof, to International Journal of Contemporary Economics and Administrative Sciences.
The Author(s) reserve(s): (a) the trademark rights and patent rights, if any, and (b) the right to use all or part of the information contained in this article in future, non-commercial works of the Author's own, or, if the article is a "work-for-hire" and made within the scope of the Author's employment, the employer may use all or part of the information contained in this article for intra-company use, provided the usual acknowledgements are given regarding copyright notice and reference to the original publication.
The Author(s) warrant(s) that the article is Author's original work, and has not been published before. If excerpts from copyrighted works are included, the Author will obtain written permission from the copyright owners and shall credit the sources in the article. The author also warrants that the article contains no libelous or unlawful statements, and does not infringe on the rights of others. If the article was prepared jointly with other Author(s), the Author agrees to inform the co-Author(s) of the terms of the copyright transfer and to sign on their behalf; or in the case of a "work-for-hire" the employer or an authorized representative of the employer.
The journal is registered with the ISSN : 1925-4423.
This license lets others distribute, remix, tweak, and build upon your work, even commercially, as long as they credit you for the original creation. This is the most accommodating of licenses offered. Recommended for maximum dissemination and use of licensed materials.